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MessagePosté le: Jeu 26 Mar - 00:54 (2009)    Sujet du message: Science and Islam Répondre en citant

Embryonic development in the Qur'an
Here and there in the Qur'an statements referring to the reproduction and development of human beings. It is only recently that the scientific meaning of some of these verses has been appreciated fully. The delay in the correct interpretation of these verses is mainly due to translations and comments inaccurate and lack of awareness of scientific knowledge.
Interest in explanations of verses from the Qur'an is not new. People used to question the Prophet Mohammed (May the prayers and blessings of Allah be upon him) on all sorts of questions about the meaning of verses referring to human reproduction. The replies of the Prophet form the basis of the Hadith literature.
The French version of Koranic verses that are interpreted in this article is based on English translations provided by Sheikh Abdul Majid Zendan, professor of Islamic Studies at the University Abdul - Aziz, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

"He has created you in the womb of your mothers, creation after creation in three coiffes (veils) of darkness."

This statement comes from Sura 39, Az - Zoumara, Groups. We do not know when it was discovered that human beings develop in the uterus (womb), but the first known illustration of a fetus in the uterus was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century. In 2nd century AD, Galen described the placenta and fetal membranes in his book "On the Formation of the Fetus", the formation of the fetus "Therefore, the doctors of the 7th century AD likely knew that the human embryo was developing in the uterus. It is unlikely they knew it grew in stages, even though Aristotle had described the stages of development of the embryo of a chick in the 4th century BC The discovery of the human embryo develops in stages was not discussed and illustrated until the 15th century.

Only when the microscope was discovered in the 17th century by Van Leeuwenhoek descriptions that have been made in the early stages of the chick embryo. Stages of human embryos have not been described before the 20th century. STREETER (1941) developed the first stages of which is now replaced by a more accurate system proposed by O'Rahilly (1972).
"The three caps (veils) of darkness" may refer to (1) the anterior abdominal wall, (2) the uterine wall, and (3) the amniotic membrane. Although there are other interpretations of this statement, the one presented here seems the most logical point of view of embryology.

"Then we have recorded a drop of semen in a safe repository."

This statement comes from Sura Al Mou'Minoune, The Believers, 23, verset13. Gout or noutfa was interpreted as the sperm or spermatozoon, but a more significant would be the zygote which divides to form a blastocyst which is implanted in the uterus ( "resting place"). This interpretation is supported by another verse of the Koran which says that "the human being is created from a mixed drop." The zygote is formed by the union of a mixture of sperm and the ovum ( "The mixed drop").

"Then we turned the drop of semen in a creation which clings."

This statement comes from Sura Al Mou'Minoune, believers 23:14. The word 'Alaq' refers to something that clings or a leech. This is an appropriate description of the human embryo from 7th to 24th days when clings to the endometrium of the uterus, in the same way that a leech clings to the skin. Just as the leech derives blood from the host, the human embryo derives blood from the region or the decidual endometrium of a pregnant woman. It is remarkable to see how the embryo of 23-24 days resembles a leech.
As there were no microscopes or lenses available in the 7th century, doctors could not know that the human embryo had this leech appearance. At the beginning of the 4th week, the embryo is just visible to the naked eye because it is smaller than a grain of wheat.

"Then something that clings, We have created a piece of chewed flesh."

This statement also comes from Sura An - Noor, The Light 24:14. The Arabic word "moudghah" means "chewed substance or chewed piece of flesh." Towards the end of the 4th week, the human embryo looks somewhat a piece of chewed flesh. The appearance is due to chewed somites which resemble teeth marks. The somites represent the appearances organogénétiques or regions of the vertebrae.

"Then the piece of chewed flesh, we created the bones then We clothed the bones of flesh."

This suite of Sura Al Mou'Minoune, believers 23:14 indicates that from the point of the piece of chewed flesh, bones and muscles are formed. This is consistent with embryological development. First the bones form as cartilage models and then the muscles (flesh) develop around them from the somatic mesoderm.

"Secondly, we have produced an entirely different creature."

The next part of Sura Al Mou'Minoune, believers 23:14 implies that the bones and muscles result in the formation of another creature. This can refer to a human embryo that forms by the end of the 8th week. At this stage it has distinctive human characteristics and possesses the organogénétiques regions of all organs and internal and external parties. After 8 weeks, the human embryo is called a fetus. This may be the new creature to which the verse refers.
"And He gave you hearing and sight and touch and understanding."

This part of Sura As - Sajda, prostration, 32:9 indicates that the particular sense of hearing, sight and touch to develop in this order which is quite accurate. Regions organogénétiques internal ears appear before the eyes and the brain (the side of understanding) differentiate last.
"Then, a piece of flesh chewed up as well to inform."
This part of Sura Al - Haj, Pilgrimage, 22:5 seems to indicate that the embryo is composed of differentiated tissues and undifferentiated. For example, when the cartilage bones are differentiated, the embryonic connective tissue or mesenchyme around them is not differentiated. It differs later in muscles and ligaments connected to the bones.
"We put in the wombs what we want, to a term rate."
The next part of Sura Al - Haj, Pilgrimage, 22:5 seems to imply that God determines which embryos will remain in the uterus until the final term. It is well known that many embryos abort during the first months of development and about 30% of zygotes that form develop in fetuses that survive until birth. This verse has been interpreted to mean that God determines whether the embryo will develop as a boy or girl.

The interpretation of Koranic verses referring to human development would not have been possible in the 7th century AD or even there are just 100 years. We can now interpret because the science of embryology, we can better understand them. There may be other verses of the Koran that are linked to human development that will be included in the future as our knowledge increases.
Keith L. Moore, Ph.D., FIAC
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario M55 IAB, Canada

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MessagePosté le: Jeu 26 Mar - 00:54 (2009)    Sujet du message: Publicité

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MessagePosté le: Jeu 26 Mar - 17:53 (2009)    Sujet du message: Science and Islam Répondre en citant

good, yeah it is thru the Coran is our life

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MessagePosté le: Aujourd’hui à 08:13 (2018)    Sujet du message: Science and Islam

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